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Topography

The country's topography is varied. The Transylvanian Basin, or Plateau, which covers much of central Romania, is very hilly and forested for the most part, but it also has wide valleys and extensive arable slopes. It is almost completely surrounded by ring of mountains, the Carpathians, comprising over 22% of the total land area, these mountains form a horseshoe in the centre of the country.

Moldoveanu, the highest peak in the country, is in the Transylvanian Alps to the south; these Alps continue south to the gorge of the Danube as the Banat Mountains. A smaller group of ranges, the Bihor Mountains, is west of the basin. The remaining areas of Romania are predominantly lowlands. In the west the lowlands of the Tisza Plain are, which are usually referred to as the The Banat, adjacent to the border with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and Crisana-Maramures, adjacent to Hungary.

The most extensive plains are the lowlands of Wallachia and the Coast, located between the Transylvanian Alps and Bulgaria, and of Moldova, east of the Carpathian Mountains. Bordering the Black Sea in the extreme east and forming part of Dobruja a low plateau is, which continues south into Bulgaria.